Saturday, 22 August 2020

What Is Mental Health?

Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel, and act. It also helps determine how we handle stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from childhood and adolescence through adulthood.

Over the course of your life, if you experience mental health problems, your thinking, mood, and behavior could be affected. Many factors contribute to mental health problems, including:

Biological factors, such as genes or brain chemistry
Life experiences, such as trauma or abuse
Family history of mental health problems
Mental health problems are common but help is available. People with mental health problems can get better and many recover completely.

Early Warning Signs
Not sure if you or someone you know is living with mental health problems? Experiencing one or more of the following feelings or behaviors can be an early warning sign of a problem:

Eating or sleeping too much or too little
Pulling away from people and usual activities
Having low or no energy
Feeling numb or like nothing matters
Having unexplained aches and pains
Feeling helpless or hopeless
Smoking, drinking, or using drugs more than usual
Feeling unusually confused, forgetful, on edge, angry, upset, worried, or scared
Yelling or fighting with family and friends
Experiencing severe mood swings that cause problems in relationships
Having persistent thoughts and memories you can't get out of your head
Hearing voices or believing things that are not true
Thinking of harming yourself or others
Inability to perform daily tasks like taking care of your kids or getting to work or school
Learn more about specific mental health problems and where to find help.

Mental Health and Wellness
Positive mental health allows people to:

Realize their full potential
Cope with the stresses of life
Work productively
Make meaningful contributions to their communities
Ways to maintain positive mental health include:

Wednesday, 19 August 2020

DIET

In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.[1] The word diet often implies the use of specific intake of nutrition for health or weight-management reasons (with the two often being related). Although humans are omnivores, each culture and each person holds some food preferences or some food taboos. This may be due to personal tastes or ethical reasons. Individual dietary choices may be more or less healthy.

Complete nutrition requires ingestion and absorption of vitamins, minerals, essential amino acids from protein and essential fatty acids from fat-containing food, also food energy in the form of carbohydrate, protein, and fat. Dietary habits and choices play a significant role in the quality of life, health and longevit                                                                                  Health
Main article: Healthy diet
A healthy diet may improve or maintain optimal health. In developed countries, affluence enables unconstrained caloric intake and possibly inappropriate food choices.[2]

Health agencies recommend that people maintain a normal weight by limiting consumption of energy-dense foods and sugary drinks, eating plant-based food, limiting consumption of red and processed meat, and limiting alcohol intake.[3]

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans is an evidence-based information source that policy makers and health professionals use to advise the general public about healthy nutrition.

Dietary choices
Raw food tacos prepared with guacamole, non-fried beans and sour cream.
Raw food tacos prepared with guacamole, non-fried beans and sour cream. Raw foodism promotes the consumption of food which has not been cooked.
Many people choose to forgo food from animal sources to varying degrees (e.g. flexitarianism, pescetarianism, vegetarianism, veganism) for health reasons, issues surrounding morality, or to reduce their personal impact on the environment, although some of the public assumptions about which diets have lower impacts are known to be incorrect.[4] Raw foodism is another contemporary trend. People who follow these diets can get all necessary nutrients, but may need to specifically focus on consumption of nutrients like protein (nutrient), iron, calcium, zinc, and B12. [5]

Weight management
Main articles: Dieting and Diet food
A particular diet may be chosen to promote weight loss or weight gain. Changing a subject's dietary intake, or "going on a diet", can change the energy balance and increase or decrease the amount of fat stored by the body. The terms "healthy diet" and "diet for weight management" are often related, as the two promote healthy weight management.[6][7] If a person is overweight or obese, changing to a diet and lifestyle that allows them to burn more calories than they consume may improve their overall health, possibly preventing diseases that are attributed in part to weight, including heart disease and diabetes.[8] Conversely, if a person is underweight due to illness or malnutrition, they may change their diet to promote weight gain. Intentional changes in weight, though often beneficial, can be potentially harmful to the body if they occur too rapidly. Unintentional rapid weight change can be caused by the body's reaction to some medications, or may be a sign of major medical problems including thyroid issues and cancer among other diseases.[9]

Eating disorders
Main article: Eating disorder
An eating disorder is a mental disorder that interferes with normal food consumption. It is defined by abnormal eating habits and thoughts about food that may involve eating much more or much less than needed.[10] Common eating disorders include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder.[11] Eating disorders affect people of every gender, age, socioeconomic status, and body size.[12]

Religious and cultural dietary choices
Some cultures and religions have restrictions concerning what foods are acceptable in their diet. For example, only Kosher foods are permitted by Judaism, and Halal foods by Islam. Although Buddhists are generally vegetarians, the practice varies and meat-eating may be permitted depending on the sects.[13] In Hinduism, vegetarianism is the ideal. Jains are strictly vegetarian and consumption of roots is not permitted.

Super healthy foods

It's easy to wonder which foods are healthiest.

A vast number of foods are both healthy and tasty. By filling your plate with fruits, vegetables, quality protein, and other whole foods, you’ll have meals that are colorful, versatile, and good for you.

Here are 50 incredibly healthy foods. Most of them are surprisingly delicious.

1–6: Fruits and berries
Fruits and berries are among the world’s most popular health foods.

These sweet, nutritious foods are very easy to incorporate into your diet because they require little to no preparation.

1. Apples
Apples are high in fiber, vitamin C, and numerous antioxidants. They are very filling and make the perfect snack if you find yourself hungry between meals.

2. Avocados
Avocados are different than most fruits because they are loaded with healthy fats instead of carbs. Not only are they creamy and tasty but also high in fiber, potassium, and vitamin C.

3. Bananas
Bananas are among the world’s best sources of potassium. They’re also high in vitamin B6 and fiber, as well as convenient and portable.

4. Blueberries
Blueberries are not only delicious but also among the most powerful sources of antioxidants in the world.

5. Oranges
Oranges are well known for their vitamin C content. What’s more, they’re high in fiber and antioxidants.

6. Strawberries
Strawberries are highly nutritious and low in both carbs and calories.

They are loaded with vitamin C, fiber, and manganese and are arguably among the most delicious foods in existence.

Other healthy fruits
Other health fruits and berries include cherries, grapes, grapefruit, kiwifruit, lemons, mango, melons, olives, peaches, pears, pineapples, plums, and raspberries.

7. Eggs
Eggs are among the most nutritious foods on the planet.

They were previously demonized for being high in cholesterol, but new studies show that they’re perfectly safe and healthy (1Trusted Source, 2Trusted Source).

8–10: Meats
Unprocessed, gently cooked meat is one of the most nutritious foods you can eat.

8. Lean beef
Lean beef is among the best sources of protein in existence and loaded with highly bioavailable iron. Choosing the fatty cuts is fine if you’re on a low-carb diet.

9. Chicken breasts
Chicken breast is low in fat and calories but extremely high in protein. It’s a great source of many nutrients. Again, feel free to eat fattier cuts of chicken if you’re not eating that many carbs.

10. Lamb
Lambs are usually grass-fed, and their meat tends to be high in omega-3 fatty acids.

11–15: Nuts and seeds
Despite being high in fat and calories, nuts and seeds may help you lose weight (3Trusted Source, 4Trusted Source).

These foods are crunchy, filling, and loaded with important nutrients that many people don't get enough of, including magnesium and vitamin E.

They also require almost no preparation, so they’re easy to add to your routine.

11. Almonds
Almonds are a popular nut loaded with vitamin E, antioxidants, magnesium, and fiber. Studies show that almonds can help you lose weight and improve metabolic health (5Trusted Source).

12. Chia seeds
Chia seeds are among the most nutrient-dense foods on the planet. A single ounce (28 grams) packs 11 grams of fiber and significant amounts of magnesium, manganese, calcium, and various other nutrients.

13. Coconuts
Coconuts are loaded with fiber and powerful fatty acids called medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs).

14. Macadamia nuts
Macadamia nuts are very tasty. They’re much higher in monounsaturated fats and lower in omega-6 fatty acids than most other nuts.

15. Walnuts
Walnuts are highly nutritious and loaded with fiber and various vitamins and minerals.

16–25: Vegetables
Calorie for calorie, vegetables are among the world’s most concentrated sources of nutrients.

There’s a wide variety available, and it’s best to eat many different types every day.

16. Asparagus
Asparagus is a popular vegetable. It’s low in both carbs and calories but loaded with vitamin K.

17. Bell peppers
Bell peppers come in several colors, including red, yellow, and green. They’re crunchy and sweet, as well as a great source of antioxidants and vitamin C.

18. Broccoli
Broccoli is a cruciferous vegetable that tastes great both raw and cooked. It’s an excellent source of fiber and vitamins C and K and contains a decent amount of protein compared with other vegetables.

19. Carrots
Carrots are a popular root vegetable. They are extremely crunchy and loaded with nutrients like fiber and vitamin K.

Carrots are also very high in carotene antioxidants, which have numerous benefits.

20. Cauliflower
Cauliflower is a very versatile cruciferous vegetable. It can be used to make a multitude of healthy dishes — and also tastes good on its own.

21. Cucumber
Cucumbers are one of the world’s most popular vegetables. They’re very low in both carbs and calories, consisting mostly of water. However, they contain a number of nutrients in small amounts, including vitamin K.

22. Garlic
Garlic is incredibly healthy. It contains bioactive organosulfur compounds that have powerful biological effects, including improved immune function (8Trusted Source).

23. Kale
Kale has become increasingly popular because it’s incredibly high in fiber, vitamins C and K, and a number of other nutrients. It adds a satisfying crunch to salads and other dishes.

24. Onions
Onions have a very strong flavor and are very popular in many recipes. They contain a number of bioactive compounds believed to have health benefits.

25. Tomatoes
Tomatoes are usually categorized as a vegetable, although they are technically a fruit. They are tasty and loaded with nutrients like potassium and vitamin C.

More healthy vegetables
Most vegetables are very healthy. Others worth mentioning include artichokes, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, celery, eggplant, leeks, lettuce, mushrooms, radishes, squash, Swiss chard, turnips, and zucchini.

26–31: Fish and seafood
Fish and other seafood tend to be very healthy and nutritious.

They’re especially rich in omega-3 fatty acids and iodine, two nutrients in which most people are deficient.

Studies show that people who eat the highest amounts of seafood — especially fish — tend to live longer and have a lower risk of many illnesses, including heart disease, dementia, and depression ( 9Trusted Source, 10, 11).

26. Salmon
Salmon is a type of oily fish that’s incredibly popular due to its excellent taste and high amount of nutrients, including protein and omega-3 fatty acids. It also contains some vitamin D.

27. Sardines
Sardines are small, oily fish that are among the most nutritious foods you can eat. They boast sizable amounts of most nutrients that your body needs.

28. Shellfish
Shellfish ranks similarly to organ meats when it comes to nutrient density. Edible shellfish include clams, mollusks, and oysters.

29. Shrimp
Shrimp is a type of crustacean related to crabs and lobsters. It tends to be low in fat and calories but high in protein. It’s also loaded with various other nutrients, including selenium and vitamin B12.

30. Trout
Trout is another type of delicious freshwater fish, similar to salmon.

31. Tuna
Tuna is very popular in Western countries and tends to be low in fat and calories while high in protein. It’s perfect for people who need to add more protein to their diets but keep calories low.

However, you should make sure to buy low-mercury varieties.

32–34: Grains
Although grains have gotten a bad rap in recent years, some types are very healthy.

Just keep in mind that they’re relatively high in carbs, so they’re not recommended for a low-carb diet.

32. Brown rice
Rice is one of the most popular cereal grains and is currently a staple food for more than half of the world’s population. Brown rice is fairly nutritious, with a decent amount of fiber, vitamin B1, and magnesium.

33. Oats
Oats are incredibly healthy. They are loaded with nutrients and powerful fibers called beta glucans, which provide numerous benefits.

34. Quinoa
Quinoa has become incredibly popular among health-conscious individuals in recent years. It’s a tasty grain that’s high in nutrients, such as fiber and magnesium. It is also an excellent source of plant-based protein.

35–36: Breads
Many people eat a lot of highly processed white bread.

For those trying to adopt a healthier diet, it can be extremely challenging to find healthy breads. Even so, options are available.

35. Ezekiel bread
Ezekiel bread may be the healthiest bread you can buy. It’s made from organic, sprouted whole grains, as well as several legumes.

36. Homemade low-carb breads
Overall, the best choice for bread may be that which you can make yourself. Here’s a list of 15 recipes for gluten-free, low-carb breads.

37–40: Legumes
Legumes are another food group that has been unfairly demonized.

While it’s true that legumes contain antinutrients, which can interfere with digestion and absorption of nutrients, they can be eliminated by soaking and proper preparation (12).

Therefore, legumes are a great plant-based source of protein.

37. Green beans
Green beans, also called string beans, are unripe varieties of the common bean. They are very popular in Western countries.

38. Kidney beans
Kidney beans are loaded with fiber and various vitamins and minerals. Make sure to cook them properly, as they’re toxic when raw.

39. Lentils
Lentils are another popular legume. They’re high in fiber and among the best sources of plant-based protein.

40. Peanuts
Peanuts (which are legumes, not a true nuts) are incredibly tasty and high in nutrients and antioxidants. Several studies suggest that peanuts can help you lose weight (6Trusted Source, 7Trusted Source).

However, take it easy on the peanut butter, as it’s very high in calories and easy to overeat.

41–43: Dairy
For those who can tolerate them, dairy products are a healthy source of various important nutrients.

Full-fat dairy seems to be the best, and studies show that people who eat the most full-fat dairy have a lower risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes (13, 14Trusted Source).

If the dairy comes from grass-fed cows, it may be even more nutritious — as it’s higher in some bioactive fatty acids like conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vitamin K2.

41. Cheese
Cheese is incredibly nutritious, as a single slice may offer about the same amount of nutrients as an entire cup (240 ml) of milk. For many, it’s also one of the most delicious foods you can eat.

42. Whole milk
Whole milk is very high in vitamins, minerals, quality animal protein, and healthy fats. What’s more, it’s one of the best dietary sources of calcium.

43. Yogurt
Yogurt is made from milk that’s fermented by adding live bacteria to it. It has many of the same health effects as milk, but yogurt with live cultures has the added benefit of friendly probiotic bacteria.

44–46: Fats and oils
Many fats and oils are now marketed as health foods, including several sources of saturated fat that were previously demonized.

44. Butter from grass-fed cows
Butter from grass-fed cows is high in many important nutrients, including vitamin K2.

45. Coconut oil
Coconut oil contains relatively high amounts of MCTs, may aid Alzheimer’s disease, and has been shown to help you lose belly fat (15Trusted Source, 16Trusted Source).

46. Extra virgin olive oil
Extra virgin olive oil is one of the healthiest vegetable oils you can find. It contains heart-healthy monounsaturated fats and is very high in antioxidants with powerful health benefits.

47–48: Tubers
Tubers are the storage organs of some plants. They tend to contain a number of beneficial nutrients.

47. Potatoes
Potatoes are loaded with potassium and contain a little bit of almost every nutrient you need, including vitamin C.

They’ll also keep you full for long periods. One study analyzed 38 foods and found that boiled potatoes were by far the most filling (17Trusted Source).

48. Sweet potatoes
Sweet potatoes are among the most delicious starchy foods you can eat. They’re loaded with antioxidants and all sorts of healthy nutrients.

49. Apple cider vinegar
Apple cider vinegar is incredibly popular in the natural health community. Studies show that it can help lower blood sugar levels and cause modest weight loss (18, 19Trusted Source).

It’s great to use as a salad dressing or to add flavor to meals.

50. Dark chocolate
Dark chocolate is loaded with magnesium and serves as one of the planet’s most powerful sources of antioxidants (20).

The bottom line
Whether you want to overhaul your diet or simply change up your meals, it’s easy to add a number of these foods to your routine.

Many of the foods above not only make a great snack but are also packed with vitamins and antioxidants. Some of them may even aid weight loss.


Monday, 17 August 2020

The Constitution of the World Health Organization, which came into force on April 7, 1948, defined health “as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being.” The writers of the Constitution were clearly aware of the tendency of seeing health as a state dependent on the presence or absence of diseases: so they added to that definition that an individual, if he is to be considered healthy, should not suffer from any disease (….“and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”) (1). In that way, the definition of the World Health Organization simply added a requirement to the previous position that allowed to declare someone healthy if no disease could be found: the step forward that could have been taken in the conceptualization of health as a dimension of existence which can co-exist with the presence of a disease or impairment was thus not taken.

Today, three types of definition of health seem to be possible and are used. The first is that health is the absence of any disease or impairment. The second is that health is a state that allows the individual to adequately cope with all demands of daily life (implying also the absence of disease and impairment). The third definition states that health is a state of balance, an equilibrium that an individual has established within himself and between himself and his social and physical environment.

The consequences of adopting one or another of these definitions are considerable. If health is defined as the absence of disease, the medical profession is the one that can declare an individual healthy. With the progress of medicine, individuals who are declared healthy today may be found to be diseased tomorrow because more advanced methods of investigations might find signs of a disease that was not diagnosable earlier. How an individual feels about his or her state is not relevant in this paradigm of health. How the surrounding people judge the behavior and appearance of an individual is only relevant if their observations are congruent with the criteria of abnormality that the medical profession has produced. The measurement of the state of health of a population is also simple and will involve no more than counting the individuals who, on examination, show defined signs of illness and comparing their numbers with those who do not.

There are obvious difficulties with the first and the second of the definitions mentioned above and with their consequences. There are individuals who have abnormalities that can be counted as symptoms of a disease but do not feel ill. There are others whose body tissues do not demonstrate changes but who feel ill and do not function well. There are people who hear voices and might therefore be candidates for psychiatric examination and possibly treatment – but live well in their community and do not ask for nor receive medical care. There is a significant number of people who have peptic ulcers and other diseases, experience no problems, do not know that they have a disease and do not seek treatment for it. Some of these individuals will also escape the second type of definition of health because they function as well as expected in their age and gender group of the general population.

The third definition mentioned above makes health depend on whether a person has established a state of balance within oneself and with the environment. This means that those with a disease or impairment will be considered as being healthy to a level defined by their ability to establish an internal equilibrium that makes them get the most they can from their life despite the presence of the disease. Health would thus be a dimension of human existence that remains in existence regardless of the presence of diseases, somewhat like the sky that remains in place even when covered with clouds. The advantage of this definition is that diseases do not replace individuals’ health: they may affect their balance more or less severely but, at all times, the patients who suffer from a disease (and their doctors) remain aware of the need to work simultaneously on two tasks – one, to remove or alleviate the disease and the second to establish a state of balance, as best they can, within oneself and in relation with their environment. In fighting stigmatization that accompanies many chronic and some acute diseases – such as mental disorders or leprosy – this definition is also useful because it makes us speak and think about our patients as people who are defined by different dimensions (including health) and who, at a point, suffer from a disease – and thus make us say “a person with schizophrenia” rather than “a schizophrenic,” or a ”person who has diabetes” rather than a “diabetic” and a “person with leprosy” rather than a “leper.”

There is another important consequence of working with this definition of health. To establish whether someone is in good health in accordance with this definition, the doctor must explore how individuals who have a disease feel about it, how the disease influences their lives, how they propose to fight their disease or live with it. Laboratory findings and the presence of symptoms are thus important and necessary ingredients in thinking about the state of health and the presence of a disease but are not sufficient to reach a decision about someone’s health: it is necessary to view the disease in the context of the person who has it in order to make a judgment about his or her level of health. There is little doubt about the fact that going about the treatment of diseases in this way would improve the practice of medicine and make it a more realistic as well as a more humane endeavor.

The promotion of health is also affected by the differences in the definition of health. The simplest definition of health – equated with the absence of disease – would lead to a definition of the promotion of health as an effort to remove diseases and diminish the numbers of individuals who suffer from them. The involvement of functioning in the definition of health would be reflected in defining the promotion of health as a process by which the capacity of individuals to cope will be enhanced and strengthened, for example by regular and obligatory physical exercise. Both of these definitions would lead to recommendations to improve the treatment of diseases, and to remove risks factors that might lead to them – such as sedentary life style, smoking, bad eating habits and insufficient application of hygienic measures such as washing one’s hands before meals.

The third definition of health, by its very nature, could not stop at efforts to remove diseases and to diminish risk factors that might lead to disease. It would have to involve the individuals whose health is to be promoted in an active way: it would have to address the scales of values of individuals and communities to ensure that health is placed higher on those scales. High value placed on health (not only on the absence of disease) would make people undertake whatever is necessary to enhance health: participating in preventive action and seeking treatment would become a normal expression of the need to behave in harmony with one’s own and one’s community values. Changing the place of health on the scale of values, however, is not possible if left to the health sector alone: values are shaped throughout life under the influence of parents, friends, schools, the media, laws, and one’s own life course and experience. Thus, changing values – for example to give health a higher value, to promote health – has to be a task for all of those involved in shaping values and placing them on a scale rather than for the health system alone.

The huge challenges that face societies aiming to improve the health of their citizens will not be appropriately answered if we do not change the paradigms of health and disease and design strategies for future work using these new paradigms. Their formulation and acceptance is a task that is before all of us and is urgent.


Healthy World

The World Health Organization provides the advice and evidence needed for people to lead healthy lives. Good health requires the commitment of many, from lawmakers to lunch makers. And there are steps each of us can take to promote and protect health. These include being more active, eating healthy, and avoiding tobacco and harmful use of alcohol.

Physical activity

Being physically active helps all people, no matter their age, lead healthier lives.

       Some physical activity is better than doing none. By being more active throughout the day in relatively simple ways, people can quite easily achieve the recommended activity levels. Below are the levels of physical activity WHO recommends people of different ages undertake.

Children and adolescents aged 5-17 years
·         Should do at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
·         Physical activity of amounts more than 60 minutes daily provides additional health benefits.
·         Should include activities that strengthen muscle and bone, at least 3 times per week.
Adults aged 18–64 years
·         Should do at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity throughout the week, or do at least 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity physical activity, or an equivalent combination of both.
·         For additional health benefits, adults should increase their moderate-intensity physical activity to 300 minutes per week, or equivalent.
·         Muscle-strengthening activities should be done involving major muscle groups on 2 or more days a week.
Adults aged 65 years and above
·         Should do at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity throughout the week, or at least 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity physical activity, or an equivalent combination of both.
·         For additional health benefits, they should increase moderate-intensity physical activity to 300 minutes per week, or equivalent.
·         Those with poor mobility should perform physical activity to enhance balance and prevent falls, 3 or more days per week.
·         Muscle-strengthening activities should be done involving major muscle groups, 2 or more days a week.
Digital health
      The use and scale up of digital health solutions can revolutionize how people worldwide achieve higher standards of health, and access services to promote and protect their health and well-being. Digital health provides opportunities to accelerate our progress in attaining health and well-being related Sustainable Development Goal (SDGs), especially SDG 3, and achieving our triple billion targets for 2023 as articulated in its Thirteenth General Programme of Work (GPW13).


Healthy dietA healthy diet is essential for good health and nutrition.
      It protects you against many chronic noncommunicable diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes and cancer. Eating a variety of foods and consuming less salt, sugars and saturated and industrially-produced trans-fats, are essential for healthy diet. A healthy diet comprises a combination of different foods. These include:
o    Staples like cereals (wheat, barley, rye, maize or rice) or starchy tubers or roots (potato, yam, taro or cassava).
o    Legumes (lentils and beans).
o    Fruit and vegetables.
o    Foods from animal sources (meat, fish, eggs and milk).
         Here is some useful information, based on WHO recommendations, to follow a healthy diet, and the benefits of doing so.
·         Breastfeed babies and young children.
o    A healthy diet starts early in life - breastfeeding fosters healthy growth, and may have longer-term health benefits, like reducing the risk of becoming overweight or obese and developing noncommunicable diseases later in life.
o    Feeding babies exclusively with breast milk from birth to 6 months of life is important for a healthy diet. It is also important to introduce a variety of safe and nutritious complementary foods at 6 months of age, while continuing to breastfeed until your child is two years old and beyond.

·         Eat plenty of vegetables and fruit.
o    They are important sources of vitamins, minerals, dietary fibre, plant protein and antioxidants.
o    People with diets rich in vegetables and fruit have a significantly lower risk of obesity, heart disease, stroke, diabetes and certain types of cancer.

·         Eat less fat.
o    Fats and oils and concentrated sources of energy. Eating too much, particularly the wrong kinds of fat, like saturated and industrially-produced trans-fat, can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke.
o    Using unsaturated vegetable oils (olive, soy, sunflower or corn oil) rather than animal fats or oils high in saturated fats (butter, ghee, lard, coconut and palm oil) will help consume healthier fats.
o    To avoid unhealthy weight gain, consumption of total fat should not exceed 30% of a person's overall energy intake.

·         Limit intake of sugars.
o    For a healthy diet, sugars should represent less than 10% of your total energy intake. Reducing even further to under 5% has additional health benefits.
o    Choosing fresh fruits instead of sweet snacks such as cookies, cakes and chocolate helps reduce consumption of sugars.
o    Limiting intake of soft drinks, soda and other drinks high in sugars (fruit juices, cordials and syrups, flavoured milks and yogurt drinks) also helps reduce intake of sugars.

·         Reduce salt intake.
o    Keeping your salt intake to less than 5h per day helps prevent hypertension and reduces the risk of heart disease and stroke in the adult population.
o    Limiting the amount of salt and high-sodium condiments (soy sauce and fish sauce) when cooking and preparing foods helps reduce salt intake.
No tobacco
      Avoiding tobacco, or taking proven measures to quit, are among the surest ways for people to avoid many illnesses and, instead, take the road to good health.Avoiding tobacco or taking proven measures to quit, are among the surest ways for people to avoid many illnesses and, instead, take the road to good health.
In fact, there are immediate and long-term health benefits of quitting for all tobacco users, including lower blood pressure.

Here are some key points on avoiding the harms of tobacco use.
·         Most tobacco users who are aware of the dangers of tobacco want to quit. Counselling and medication more than doubles the chance that someone who uses tobacco and tries to quit will succeed.
·         If you are a tobacco user wanting to quit, it is essential to understand the importance of doing so for your own health and your family.
·         Then, you must be confident that you can quit - many people have done so.
·         If needed, seek support from health professionals to quit. There are a range of things people can do, from calling a quit line and accessing online material to attending a cessation clinic.
·         Practical tips to help tobacco users deal with tobacco cravings include delay, drinking water, deep breathing and physical activity.

 1. Don’t drink sugar calories . This is because your brain doesn’t measure calories from liquid sugar the same way it does for solid fo...